Cystic fibrosis dating people with cystic fibrosis
Because factors II, VII, IX, and X (clotting factors) are vitamin K–dependent, low levels of vitamin K can result in coagulation problems.Consequently, when a child presents with unexplained bruising, a coagulation evaluation may be warranted to determine whether an underlying disease is present.Damage of the pancreas can lead to loss of the islet cells, leading to a type of diabetes unique to those with the disease.Vitamin D is involved in calcium and phosphate regulation.This condition, called meconium ileus, occurs in 5–10% The thick mucus seen in the lungs has a counterpart in thickened secretions from the pancreas, an organ responsible for providing digestive juices that help break down food.These secretions block the exocrine movement of the digestive enzymes into the duodenum and result in irreversible damage to the pancreas, often with painful inflammation (pancreatitis).The poor growth in children typically presents as an inability to gain weight or height at the same rate as their peers, and is occasionally not diagnosed until investigation is initiated for poor growth.The causes of growth failure are multifactorial and include chronic lung infection, poor absorption of nutrients through the gastrointestinal tract, and increased metabolic demand due to chronic illness.
CF develops when neither allele can produce a functional CFTR protein.
Bile secreted by the liver to aid in digestion may block the bile ducts, leading to liver damage.
Over time, this can lead to scarring and nodularity (cirrhosis).
Other signs include coughing up blood (hemoptysis), high blood pressure in the lung (pulmonary hypertension), heart failure, difficulties getting enough oxygen to the body (hypoxia), and respiratory failure requiring support with breathing masks, such as bilevel positive airway pressure machines or ventilators.
The most common infection involves bacterial strain mutation to form a biofilm-forming and sustaining mucoid strain on the lung epithelium, which can result in downstream mechanisms that progress the infection.